PROF.(DR.) NIRANJAN MOHANTY.
NVP of India
Dr Akhay kumar Prusty
RRI(H) Puri, India
Affiliated LMHI Member Organization (Institutional Member)
LMHI Indian Chapter
Jaipur Homoeopathy University
JIMS College & Hospital, Hyderabad
The Origin & Development of Homeopathy in India
Abstract: Homeopathy was introduced in India the early 19th century. It flourished in Bengal at first, then spread all over India. In the beginning, the system was extensively practised by amateurs in the civil and military services and others. Mahendra Lal Sircar was the first Indian doctor who became a homeopathic physician. In 1973, the Government of India recognized homeopathy as one of the national systems of medicine and set up the Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) to regulate its education and practice. Now, only qualified registered homeopaths can practice homeopathy in India. At present, in India, homeopathy is the third most popular method of medical treatment after allopathy and Ayurveda. There are over 246772 registered homeopathic doctors at present. There are 186 UG colleges and 44 PG Recognized colleges with post graduation are in seven specialties with Approximately 12,000 or more being added every year.
In 1962 Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia committee was appointed by Govt of India who started compilation of Indian Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia.
Govt of India formed the Central Council for Research in Indian medicine, Homoeopathy and Yoga in 1969. Then it was separated in 1978 and called CCRH which is continuing since then as an autonomous body.
Homoeopathic pharmacopeia laboratory was founded as a sub-ordinate institute to the dept. of Indian system of medicine & Homoeopathy (ISM&H) in 1975. Govt of India.
National Institute of Homoeopathy came into existence at Kolkata in 1975.
From 1995 the Dept. of ISM&H was in existence but for further growth it was converted into Ministry of AYUSH.
At present there are many professional organization like Indian Institute of Homoeopathic Physician has Homoeopathic Medical association etc.
In India Homoeopathy is given full government patronage, we can say India is the powerhouse of Homoeopathy in the World today.
History, JM Honigberger; Mahendra Lal Sircar, Homeopathy in India, Homeopathic institutions in India, Homeopathic associations in India.
Origins and early history:
There are different opinions about the year in which homeopathy was introduced to India. Some believe that a German geologist came to India with his officials for geological investigations in 1810. He set up an office at Calcutta, during his sojourn he practised homeopathic medicine for the treatment of his workers and the people of that locality. At the same time, a Mr Mullence of the London Missionary Society was known to have distributed homeopathic medicines to the people of Bhawanipur, Calcutta. However, most historians do not accept the year 1810 as the beginning of the practice of homeopathy in India as there is no written documentation about the aforesaid episodes.1
John Martin Honigberger (1795–1869), Royal Physician of Punjab during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singhji, claimed in his book titled Thirty Five Years in the East: Adventures, Discoveries, Experiments and Historical Sketches Relating to Punjab and Kashmir, in Connection with Medicine, Botany, Pharmacy etc., Together with an Original Materia Medica and a Medical Vocabulary in Four European and Five Eastern Languages published in London in 1852, that he had introduced the homeopathic method of treatment in India in 1839. 1839 is now generally accepted as the year of the introduction of homeopathy in India.1
Maharaja Ranjit Singhji died on 27 June 1839. Honigberger stayed in Punjab for another 10 years and devoted himself to the profession of homeopathy. In 1855, Honigberger moved to Calcutta, where he practised homeopathy during his stay there for 5 years.1
The date 16 February 1867 is a memorable day in the history of homeopathy in India. On that day, Mahendra Lal Sircar (1833–1904), then a popular allopathic physician and upholder of Indian science announced publicly his conviction regarding the homeopathic system of medicine. In fact, Sircar was the first Indian who, although institutionally educated as a medical doctor, converted to the practice of homeopathy. Within one year of adopting homeopathy, he published the first homeopathic journal of Asia, The Calcutta Journal of Medicine, in January 1868. This journal was received well not only in India but throughout the world.2
Meanwhile, homeopathy began to gain ground in other parts of India. In 1867, a Mr. Ironsides established the first homeopathic hospital in Benares, ignoring strong opposition from allopathic organizations; he appointed Lokenath Moitra as officer-in-charge of the hospital. In 1869, a homeopathic charitable dispensary was instituted in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, with the help of some social workers; Babu Priyanath Basu took charge as a visiting physician. In 1870, another homeopathic dispensary was set up in the historic city of Agra, and Babu Gobinda Chandra Roy was appointed Chief Medical Officer there. In the same year Maharaja Bahadur of Jaipur, Rajasthan, invited Dr Salzar, a famous homeopathic practitioner of Calcutta at the time, to treat his vision problem and Salzar was able to bring about much improvement in Raja Bahadur’s health and vision by homeopathic medicine. Hence, the Maharaja of Jaipur announced his conviction regarding homeopathy and patronised this method of treatment in Rajasthan.
The principal role of popularising homeopathy in south India was performed by Father Muller (1841–1910). Father Muller was a German priest who studied homeopathy in USA and France. He then went to Mangalore in south India on 31 December 1871 with other missionaries. Soon he gained fame as a medical practitioner. By virtue of his zeal, in 1880, a charitable dispensary was founded in Konkanari, Mangalore. Father Muller established the General Hospital in 1895. 2 , 3
In Bengal, Mahendra Lal Sircar, head of the Allopathic Society, adopted homeopathy and established himself as a homeopath, became the inspiration for many other allopathic physicians. A considerable number of allopathic doctors started homeopathic practice following Sircar’s initiative. Pratap Chandra Majumdar, along with M.M. Bose and D.N. Roy established ‘The Calcutta School of Homeopathy’ on 14 February 1881 by their own efforts. Later, this institution was renamed the Calcutta Homeopathic Medical College. In course of time, this college became the leading homeopathic institution of India. Students from all over the country came in large numbers to learn homeopathy. Many talented persons, after graduating in homeopathy studies from this college, spread out throughout India. Thus, the achievements of this institution in popularising homeopathy in India need to be acknowledged.
M.N. Pillai (1882–1962) came to Calcutta from Trivandrum to study homeopathy and, after completing his medical education at the Calcutta Homeopathic Medical College, returned to his own state to practise there. He was the pioneer of homeopathy in Kerala. Abhin Chandra Rao obtained the MHMS (Master of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery) degree from the Bengal Allen Homeopathic College in 1921 and returned to Cuttack. Within a short period, he became a renowned homeopathic physician. Govt of Orissa established the first homeopathic medical college in Orissa.3 Thus, homeopathy, with its roots in Bengal, spread out to other states of India.
Homeopathy associations in the colonial period:
There was no government control on homeopathic training and practice in the colonial period. In this situation, qualified homeopaths tried to obtain government recognition for homeopathy with the idea that homeopathic training and practice may progress appropriately. To fulfil this aim, the homeopaths of Bengal and other states of India came together to form ‘The All India Homeopathic Medical Association (AIHMA)’ in 1932. It was formed with the initiative of K.N. Katju and other practitioners from Uttar Pradesh and with support from Jitendranath Majumdar.
W. Younan, a renowned homeopathic physician of Calcutta, was elected the first president of the first homeopathic association in India, and Jitendranath Majumdar its first general secretary. Yearly conferences were held and the leaders of the association explained to the members of Central Legislative Assembly the urgent need of inclusion of the homeopathic system of medicine under the Central Health Programme. As a result, the first homeopathic resolution was proposed in the Central Legislative Assembly (under British rule) by Miyan Ghiasuddin and was passed on 2 April 1937.
However, not much progress was made, and another homeopathic association – the ‘All India Institute of Homeopathy’ (AIIH) was formed in 1944, with its headquarters in Delhi. The founder members of the AIIH were – A.N. Mukherjee of Calcutta, Dewan Jaichand of Lahore, Daya Shankar Kayastha, J.P. Srivastava, S.P Asthana and K.G. Saxena of Delhi. Saxena was elected the general secretary of the association.1
In December 1946, a delegation from the AIIH met Mr. Ghaznafar Ali Khan, the then health minister of India. The delegation gave a clear picture of homeopathic practice and training in India and abroad and requested the health minister to recognise and use homeopathy in the future health plan of India. A draft proposal was submitted to the central government on 15 March, 1947.1
After independence on 15 August 1947, a new avenue was open for homeopathy to move on according to Indian will and need. Rajkumari Amrit Kaur became the first health minister of independent India. The representatives of the AIIH met her with a new hope and requested to implement the proposals that had been submitted to her predecessor. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Health informed the AIIH that nothing could be done unless another resolution was passed by parliament. Representatives of the AIIH persuaded Mr. Satish Chandra Samanta, Mr. Mohun Lal Saxena, Pattavi Sitaramayya, Lala Deshbandhu Gupta and other members of the parliament to move for consideration of the homeopathic resolution that was put up by the Congress Party on 17 February 1948 and unanimously passed by the parliament.
GOVERNMENT BODIES AND INSTITUTIONS INVOLVING HOMEOPATHY-
omeopathic Enquiry Committee1 On 30 September 1948, the government announced the terms of references and names of personnel of the Homeopathic Enquiry Committee. Most of the elected members of this committee had been the members of AIIH. The committee submitted its report in 1949. It accepted the homeo- pathic system of medicine and recommended its recognition to the government. This committee also recom- mended the formation of a Central Homeopathic Council. It visited homeopathic institutions in different states and presented comprehensive reports on how the physicians had been working and to what extent the patients benefited. The survey report was recorded in the ‘Report of the Homeopathic Enquiry Committee 1949, Government of India and Ministry of Health’. From this report, the condition of homeopathic colleges as well as homeopathic practitioners at that time could be known to a considerable degree.1
Homeopathic Advisory Committee The Government of India constituted an ad hoc committee on homeopathy in 1952. There were five members of the AIIH on this committee, presided over by the Director Gen- eral of Health Services (DGHS), Ministry of Health. This committee had six sittings between 1952 and 1954 and discussed and resolved various problems pertaining to homeopathy. In 1954, this committee was designated as the Homeopathic Advisory Committee. In 1956, this advisory committee was transferred from the directorate to the Health Ministry with the health secretary as its chairman. The DGHS (Director General of Health Services), the director of medical research and six homeopaths formed the committee. All the homeopathic members were members of AIIH. This committee functioned until the formation of the Central Council of Homeopathy in 1974.4 On the recommendation of the advisory committee, K.G. Saxena was appointed by the central government as the first honorary advisor in 1962. The advisor was also the secretary of the Homeopathic Advisory Committee. The second homeopathic advisor, Jugal Kishore, was appointed in September 1971 and he worked till December 1979. The third homeopathic advisor, Harish Chand, was appointed on September 1980. The duty of the advisor was to apprise the government of India regarding all matters concerning homeopathy on the basis of which the central government could consider the plans and programmes for the develop- ment of homeopathy
The Dave Committee-The government of India set up this committee for standardisation in training and regulation of the practice of homeopaths, vaidyas and hakims in 1956. D.T. Dave, the health minister of Saurashtra, was the chairman of the committee. The recommendations of the Dave Committee were:
- There should be separate registers for Ayurveda, Unani and homeopathy streams.
- Registered medical practitioners of Ayurvedic, Unani and Homeopathic systems of medicine should have the same privileges as practitioners in modern medicine.
- Two councils should be created similar to the Indian Medical Council, to have control over the maintainance of uniform teaching standards in all the institutions: The Central Council of Ayurvedic and Unani systems of Medicine and The Central Council for Homeopathic System of Medicine.
- A 5.5-year degree course should be introduced for homeopathy (4.5-year course with 1 year’s internship). The course for homeopathy would be almost similar to that suggested by the Homeopathic Enquiry Committee (1949).
- Separate directors for (a) ayurvedic and Unani and (b) homeopathic systems of medicine should be created in the Central Ministry of Health, Government of India, and also in the states as far as possible.
Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee Another landmark in the progress of homeopathy in India was the appointment of a Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee in September 1962 with B.K. Sarkar as the chairman. The other members were S.R. Wadia, Diwan Harish Chand and K.G. Saxena. The term of the committee was for a period of 3 years commencing from 17 November 1962, the date of its first meeting. After the expiry of 3 years, the term of the committee was extended by a further period of 3 years. The work of the committee was in connection with the compilation of the Indian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia.
Central Council for Homoeopathy (CCH) In 1964, a composite Central Council Bill for Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy was introduced in Parliament. A joint Parliamentary Committee of 36 members of Parliament with Bhargava as Chairman was constituted which submitted its report in 1967 and recommended for separate Central Councils of Indian Systems and Homoeopathy. The Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy Central Council Bill, 1968 was introduced in Rajya Sabha, on December 27th, 1968. In 1971 Central Council for Indian System of Medicine was formed and a separate Bill for homoeopathy was raised in Lok Sabha in December 1971. In April 1972, a Joint Parliamentary Committee of 48 M.P.s was constituted for homoeopathy. Central Council of Homoeopathy Bill was accepted in the Rajya Sabha, in July, 1973. The Central Council of Homoeopathy Act was made in 1973 and the Government constituted the Central Council of Homoeopathy (C.C.H.) in 1974 with A K Kisku as the President and Jugal Kishore as Vice President. Five Principal Committee were formed under the Central Council. They were – a) Educational Committee, b) Executive Committee, c) Liaison Committee, d) Planning and Development Cell, e) Council Meetings. Currently, the CCH approves two courses: BHMS: (Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery) this course spreads over 5.5 years, including intern- ship of 1-year duration after passing the final-year degree examination. MD (Hom): (Postgraduate Degree Course) The CCH has prescribed postgraduate degree courses in homeopathic subjects, for example, Materia Medica, Homeopathic Philosophy, Repertory, Pharmacy, Practice of Medicine, Psychiatry spread over 3-years’ duration including 1 year of house job or equivalent thereof.
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) On May 23rd, 1969, Government of India formed Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy and Yoga. In 1970, under the advice of K G Saxena, the then Honourable Adviser of Homoeopathy, the Central Government decided to found Central Homoeopathic Research Institute. The first homoeopathic research institute in India which was also the first one in Asia was established in Howrah, West Bengal. The Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH), one of the successor organizations to the erstwhile CCRIMH was established as an autonomous organization, at New Delhi in 1978. Ever since, CCRH remains a unique organization which is engaged in various research studies in Homoeopathy.
The main objectives of the CCRH
- To formulate aims and patterns of research on scientific lines in homeopathy.
- To undertake any research or other programmes in homeopathy.
- To prosecute and assist in research, propagate knowledge and experimental measures generally in connection with the causation, mode of spread and prevention of diseases.
- To initiate, aid, develop and coordinate scientific research in different aspects – (e.g., fundamental and applied aspects of homeopathy) and to promote and assist institutions of research for the study of the diseases, their prevention, causation and remedy, etc.
Homoeopathic Pharmacopeia Laboratory Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory, Ghaziabad (HPL) was founded in September 1975 as a plan-scheme under 5th plan (1975-80). Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory, Ghaziabad is a sub-ordinate institute to the department of ISM & Homoeopathy, Government of India. It is also recognised by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, as Scientific, Technological and Research Institution. The laboratory is functioning as standard setting-cum-drug testing laboratory at the national level. Standards of Homoeopathic drugs are covered under Second Schedule of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. Standards as worked out by the laboratory and approved by the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee are published in the form of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India (HPI). So far six volumes of HPI have been published consisting of standards on 706 basic drugs and standards on 159 finished products. Volume VII of HPI consisting of standards on 101 drugs is ready for publication.
AYUSH Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy (ISM&H) was established in March, 1995. It’s name was changed to Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) in November, 2003. The Department is working constantly for up gradation of AYUSH educational standards, quality control and standardization of drugs. It is also working on improving the availability of medicinal plant material, research and development and awareness generation about the efficacy of the systems domestically and internationally. On 29th September, 2014 The Government launched the National AYUSH Mission with the objectives of providing cost effective AYUSH services, with a universal access through upgrading AYUSH Hospitals and Dispensaries, co-location of AYUSH facilities at primary health Centers (PHCs), Community Health Centers (CHCs) and District Hospitals (DHs), strengthing institutional capacity at the state level through upgrading AYUSH educational institutions, State Government.
Manpower and Institutional Profile of Homoeopathy In India
1 No. of Registered Medical Practitioners 246772 2 Number of Dispensaries 6732 3 Number of Hospitals 240 4 Bed Strength 9466 5 Number of Institutions conducting UG Courses 186 6 Number of Institutions conducting PG Courses 44 7 Number of specialties in Post-graduation 7
National Institute of Homoeopathy (N.I.H.) In view of inspiring indigenous system of medicine and homoeopathy, Government of India took up programme so that in the National Health Service, these systems could be applied. For that reason Government intended to boost up education and research of indigenous system of medicine and homoeopathy. Consequent to the intention and action of the Central Government, on the 10th December 1975, National Institute of Homoeopathy came into existence.
Formation of Homoeopathic Medical Associations The All India Institute of Homoeopathy was formed in 1944, which later renamed as Indian Institute of Homoeopathic Physicians. The year 1975 is earmarked in the history of homoeopathy in India inasmuch as through the relentless effort of West Bengal State Homoeopathic Federation, two great Homoeopathic Associations, one being ‘All India Homoeopathic Medical Association’ and another one ‘Indian Institute of Homoeopathy’, held an All India Conference together in 1975 in Calcutta, opted to coalesce. Thus the year 1975, gave birth to the united All India Association under the name Homoeopathic Medical Association of India (H.M.A.I.)
Indian Institute of Homeopathic Physicians (IIHP) The All India Institute of Homeopathy (AIIH) was formed in 1944 by a team including M. Gururaju, A.N. Mukharjee, Diwan Jaichand, Daya Shankar, J.P Srivasthava, and S.P. Asthana with K.G. Saxena as the founder secretary general. It was later renamed as the Indian Institute of Homeopathic Physicians (IIHP).
CONCLUSION: Homeopathy became extremely popular and spread all over world. Hanhemann’s conception regarding health, disease and cure coincides with ancient Indian philosophy: the source of health and disease is not material but spiritual, that is, in the material life principle, which is integrated with body and mind in the human organism. Anything which affects the life principle morbidly must do so qualitatively and the medicine which cures diseases also does the same qualitatively. Homeopathy has limitations; it can be used as complementary and supplementary therapy to allopathy and can co exist with other modern methods.
India-LMHI National Vice-President for India
8/20/2014 4:06:15 AM